Nucleophilic Substitution
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  • SN1 substitution occur more readily:
    • for tertiary > secondary >> primary, methyl alkyl halides, alcohols, or epoxide centers,
    • in polar protic solvents,
    • with acid catalyst,
    • with scrambling of the configuration of chiral centers, racemization, if there is no neighboring group effect.
  • SN2 substitution occur more readily:
    •  for methyl > primary > secondary >> tertiary, neopentyl alkyl halides or epoxide centers,
    • in polar aprotic solvents,
    • with bases,
    • with inversion of configuration of chiral centers, stereoselectivity.

 

 

 

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