Solubility
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  1. Solubility
    1. Depends on Temperature
      1. Solids become more soluble in hot liquids
      2. Gases become less soluble in hot liquids
    2. In water, increases with hydrogen bonding
      1. 1 to 4 rule
      2. ethylene glycol
      3. gel glue
      4. carbohydrates and other biomolecules
      5. increases with making salts, ionic compounds
    3. Polar and Non-Polar Solvents
      1. Aqueous and Non-Aqueous,
      2. Lipophilic and Lipophobic,
      3. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic,
      4. like dissolves like
    4. increases with branching
    5. Partition coefficients
      1. Extraction, extracted material = initial material/(1+K V1/V2), multiple extractions are best
      2. Octan-1-ol/ water partition coefficient, logKOW = logP, drug design requires 0 < logP < 5.
    6. Emulsifiers, Surfactants, Soaps, Amphiphilic
      1. Polar and non-polar portions of a molecule allow it to mix polar and non-polar materials
        1. The lecithin in egg emulsifies water, oil and air to make mayonnaise.
        2. The soap or surfactants in shampoo emulsifies water, oil and air to make lather.
        3. Emulsions make extraction difficult, rinse your glassware of soap before you use it.

 

 

 

 

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Thursday, April 06, 2017 13:18