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  • Electromagnetic radiation is used to observe a substance and determine its identity.
  • Observing a molecule changes it.
  • Every form of electromagnetic radiation has a corresponding frequency (n) and wavelength (l) related by n l = c, the speed of light.
Electromagnetic Radiation Range Change Technique
X-ray   core electrons move X-ray Crystalography
Far Ultraviolet   valence electrons move Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV)
Near Ultraviolet 200-400 nm valence electrons move
Visible 400-800 nm valence electrons move
Infrared   molecular vibrations IR Spectroscopy
Microwave   molecular translations and rotations Microwave Spectroscopy
Radio   nuclear flips Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy





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